Required Safety man for Less Hazardous Workplaces

  •    1 - 250 employees     -    1 part time safety man
  • 251 - 500 employees    -    2 part time safety man
  • 501 - 750 employees    -    1 full time safety man
  • 751 - 1000 employees   -    2 full time safety man

Nurse or Physician Qualification

  • has a 40 hours basic training of Occupational Safety course
  • 3 years relevant experience
  • has a license and if not, he or she should have a 5years of experience





*Different parts of the Fire Extinguisher.


  1. Identify and report fire hazards and unsafe work practices.
  2. Unplug all electric equipment when not in operation unless necessary.
  3. Maintain office sanitation and proper housekeeping.
  4. Familiarize and keep emergency exit marked lighted and free from obstruction.
  5. Familiarize location of fire alarm, fire extinguishers and other fire fighting equipment.
  6. Emforce "NO SMOKING" policy and report violators.
  7. Welding work should have work permit and fire extinguishers at hand for the duration.


  1. After the first sign of fire, make every attempt to put it off. The first 3 minutes is critical as it is still containable- fire extinguishers. Thereafter, the nearest fire alarm should be sounded.
  2. If evacuation is ordered, stay calm. Don't panic. Follow your floor marshal and his assistance toward the emergency exit opposite of the fire location, in an orderly fashion.
  3. If your life is not threatened, make every effort to search your work area to see any possible straggler and lead them to the exit stairwells down to the ground floor.
  4. Do not use the elevator during evacuation. 

  1. Check yourself for any bodily injury and immediatelyreport for first aid treatment.
  2. Report to your Floor Marshal for physical accounting at the designated assembly area.
  3. Report your colleague who is probably missing.

Duties of the Health and Safety Committee

Principal/duties of the Health and Safety committee are:

  1. Plans and develops accident prevention programs for the establishment.
  2. Direct the accident prevention effects of the establishments in accordance with the safety programs, safety performance and government regulations in order to prevent accidents from occuring in the work place.
  3. Conducts safety meeting of at least once a month.
  4. Reviews report of inspection, accident investigation and implementation programs.

Philippine Occupational Health and Safety Standards

Rule 1040- Health and Safety Committee
* a safety committee shall be organized within 60 working days.


Company with 400 employees and above
  • Chairman-top operating official
  • Members- 2 department heads 
                        4 workers
                        Company physician (full time)
  • Secretary- safety man

Company with 200-400 employees
  • Chairman- top operating official
  • Members- Supervisor
                        3 workers
                        Company physician or nurse (full time)
  • Secretary - safety man

Company with 100-200 employees
  • Chairman - manager or authorized representative
  • Members- 1 foreman
                        3 workers
  • Secretary - safety man (part time)

Company with less than 100 workers
  • Chairman- Manager
  • Members-1 foreman
                       3 workers
                       Nurse or First Aider
  • Secretary- safety man (part time)

  • Chairman- the Chairman of the establishment committee
  • Members- 2 supervisors from 2 different establishments
                        2 workers from 2 different establishments
  • Secretary- appointed by the Chairman

Occupational Health and Safety

It is a government program under DOLE and they're the one responsible to have an annual check up of every establishment.

Occupational Health and Safety is a cross disciplinary are concerned with protecting the health, safety and welfare of the people engage in work or employment.

  • To foster safe work environment.
  • To protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers, nearby communities and other members of the public.

  • Occupational Medicine
  • Occupational/Industrial hygiene
  • Public Health
  • Safety Engineering
  • Chemistry
  • Health Physics

Ten Common Etiquette Blunders

  1. Inappropriate language.
  2. Diregard for others time.
  3. Inappropriate dress and grooming.
  4. Misuse of the telephone.
  5. Failure to greet someone appropriately.
  6. Poor listening skills.
  7. Diregard of shared property and other space.
  8. Embarrassing others.
  9. Poor table manners.
  10. Inappropriate or inconsistent recognition of people.

World's Largest Hotels

  • Izmailovo Hotel
  • MGM Grand
  • First World Hotel
  • The Venetian and the Palazo
  • Sands Cotai
  • Whynn Hotel
  • Luxor Las Vegas
  • Mandalay Bay
  • Ambassado City
  • Excalibur Hotel and Casino

  • Songliang Hotel
  • Burj Al Arab
  • Atlantis, the Palm

 *According to 2010 update!


Housekeeping Career Professionalism

  • Institutional trainings
  • Industry exposure or experience
  • Skill certificate


Causes of Earthquakes

Earthquakes occur from the deformation of outer, brittle portions of "tectonic plates," the earth's outermost layer of crust and upper mantle. Due to the heating and cooling of the rock below these plates, the resulting convection causes the adjacently overlying plates to move, and, under great stresses, deform. The rates of plate movements range from about 2 to 12 centimeters per year. Sometimes, tremendous energy can build up within a single, or between neighboring plates. If the accumulated stress exceeds the strength of the rocks making up these brittle zones, the rocks can break suddenly, releasing the stored energy as an earthquake. An earthquake begins when the plates push against earth other and the pressure builds. Cracks start to appear in walls and roads. The ground may shiver (tremor). Where the rocks snap  setomic waves (body waves) make the ground move. The first ones (primary) travel through rock, volcanic lava, water and even air.

There are three main plate tectonic environments: extensional, transform, and compressional. Plate boundaries in different localities are subject to different inter-plate stresses, producing these three types of earthquakes. Each type has its own special hazards.

What to do?

What to do Before
  • Determine if site is along an active fault or prone to liquefaction or landslides
  • If you need help, consult PHIVOLCS
  • Make sure that proper structural design and engineering practice is followed when constructing a building or house
  • Check the integrity of your building;
                Secure structural plan of the building
                Identify structural elements
                Determine condition of each structural elements
                Familiarize yourself with places you're frequent
                Know exit areas

  • Identify safe spots:
                Under a sturdy desk or table
                In a strong supported doorway
                In an inside corner of the room

  • Identify danger zones
                Glass windows and glass panels
                Book shelves, machinery, cabinets and furniture that may  topple or slide
                Any kind of hanging objects

  • Prepare place of work/residence for the event
                Secure all hanging and heavy objects
                Store breakables items, harmful chemicals, flammable materials in lowermost shelves and secure.
                Keep heavy materials in lower shelves
                Turn off gas tanks when not in use.

  • Prepare
                Earthquake Plan
                Earthquake Survival Kit
                First Aid Kit with Water Purification Tablets
                AM/FM Radio
                Water & High-energy Food
                Tools & Ropes
                Candles & Flashlights
                Tissue Paper & Waste Bags
                Pencil and Paper

What to do During
  • Secure an exit
                When you feel an earthquake, open a door right away. This ensures an escape route after the earthquake is over.
  • Do not rush
                Usually a strong earthquake will end within a minute or so. Seek shelter in the room you're in and stay there until it's over.
  • Go to spots
  • Protect your head from falling debris
  • Get away from power lines, posts, walls, other structures that may fall or collapse.
  • Stay away from buildings with glass panes.
  • When driving a vehicle pull to the road and stop. Do not attempt to cross bridges or overpasses which may have been DAMAGED.
  • If along the shore and you feel an earthquake strong enough to make standing difficult, it is best to assume that a tsunami has been triggered. Run away from the shore toward higher ground.

What to do After
  • Take emergency kit
  • Get out calmly in an orderly manner. Go to an open area.
  • Use the stairs. Do not use elevator.
  • Check for and attend to injuries.
  • Check surrounding
                Check for fire and if any, have it controlled.
                Clean up chemical spills, toxic and flammable materials to avoid any chain of unwanted events.
                Check water, gas and electrical lines for defects. If any damage is suspected, turn the system off in the main valveor switch.
  • Use flashlights; never light a match.
  • Help reduce number of casualties
                Don't enter partially damaged building, strong aftershocks may cause further collapse.
                Gather information and disaster prevention instruction from battery-operated radios.
                Obey public safety precautions/instructions
                Telephone Calls

  • Document observation
                Damaged parts of building
                Damaged utilities
                School record/security logbook

Different types of Collapse
-Lean To

When to speak and when to be silent

Sirach 19: 4-30

He who is too quick to trust others reveals a shallow mind, whoever sins injures himself.
5 One who reveals in pleasure will be condemned, 6 hating gossip will save one from evil.
7Never repeat what you are told and you will come to no harm.
8Report nothing to friend or foe and, unless silence is sinful, reveal it to no one. 9They will listen, distrust you and you will end up being hated.

What was the first rock 'n' roll hit?

"Rock Around the Clock," which was recorded by Bill Haley and the Comets in 1954. Rock 'n' roll music is happy, upbeat music. It was new because it was music played by young people for young people, and it was written for electric guitars and small bands instead of pianos and big orchestra.

The King
Elvis Presley is often called the king of rock 'n' roll. He helped to make rock music VERY popular. He had his first big hit in 1956 with the song "Heartbreak Hotel."

Powerful sounds
The electric guitar works by turning the vibrations of the strings into powerful electric signals. It can make wild and wonderful sounds, but only when it's plugged in!

How does a piano make music?

Little hammers hit the strings inside! When you press on a key, a little felt-covered hammer hits one of the strings. The string vibrates and makes a sound. The piano can be played loud or soft depending on how hard you hit the keys.

Play it again, kids!
The first pianos had strings on a horizontal frame. The upright piano was made so people could fit this popular instrument through their front doors.

Strings attached 
The harp is also a string instrument. Its strings are plucked.

Awesome sound
Piano Tuner: I've come to tune your piano.
   Boy: But I didn't send for you.
Piano Tuner: No, but your neighbors did!

Piano pieces

  • In Victorian England, people often covered up the legs of their pianos because they thought pianos shouldn't show their legs!

How many instruments can one person play at once?

It takes a lot of skill and practice, but some people can manage a guitar, a harmonica and a kazoo on a special neck harness -along with a couple of drums and some jangling rattles on their legs, cymbals on their elbows, and maybe some bells on their hat!

Big mouth!
Some people can play more than one wind instrument at once.

Marching bands
Musicians who play in marching bands have to hold their instruments, play them and march in step at the same time -so don't expect to see a piano marching by!

Bet you didn't know that...

  • A composer named Leopold Mozart wrote a piece of music that uses musical toys such as rattles, whistles, and humming tops.

What is the largest musical instrument?

The pipe organ. An organ is made of pipes of different sizes. Little pipes make the high notes. They can be just an inch tall. The pipes that make the deep sounds can be as tall as a house. When the player presses the keys on the keyboard, a flap opens inside the organ which allows air to pass through certain pipes -and that is where the sound comes from.

A bag of wind
Bagpipes are one of the oldest instruments of all. Roman soldiers used them in their military bands over 2,000 years ago. Wind from the bag gets forced through the pipes to make a droning sound -well, some people like it!

Useful composers
What did the musician take to the supermarket?
   A Chopin Liszt!

Outrageous organ facts

  • The biggest (and loudest) organ ever made is in Atlantic City, New Jersey. It has twelve keyboards and 33,112 pipes. It could make as much noise as 25 brass bands!

Which orchestra instrument makes the highest sound?

The piccolo makes just about the highest sound. A piccolo is a tiny little flute with a high, piercing sound. A big brass tuba makes a very, very low sound. If you could see sound waves, a high sound would look like lots of fast-moving wiggles- a low sound would look like a slow, lazy wave.

Oompah pah!
Mickey's playing a sousaphone. It's a kind of tuba developed by John Sousa, who is famous for composing march music.

Come on home, Bessie!
Some alpenhorns are more than 12 feet long. They aren't actually musical instruments; they were made for Swiss farmers to call their cattle home.

Hitting the high notes

  • Some animals can hear very high sounds. Certain dog whistles, for instance, make a sound so high we can't hear it, but dogs can. Woofwoof!

How many instruments are there in an orchestra?

An orchestra is made up of four families of instruments -string, woodwind, brass, and percussion. Full orchestra can range in size from about 80 people to hundreds of people. The conductor, who is the person in charge of the orchestra, waves a baton to keep all the musicians playing together.

Bright sounds
Brass instruments, like horns, trumpets, and trombones, are made of a metal called brass. They are played by blowing.

Piping sounds
Woodwind instruments, like flutes and clarinets, were once made of wood. Now they are often made of metal or plastic. They are also played by blowing.

Sweet sounds
String instruments are violins, violas, cellos, and double basses. They are plucked and bowed.

Keeping the beat
 Percussion instruments are drums, cymbals, and anything you hit to make a sound.

All together now!
  • Not all the instruments play the same notes at the same time. Some instruments play the high notes, while others sound low and deep. And different instruments play different tunes that sound good together.

How did people long ago learn new songs?

Singers would wander around the countryside, going from castle to castle, from town to town, playing and singing the songs they knew. These wandering musicians were called minstrels. Other minstrels would hear the songs, learn them by heart, and set off on their own travels, spreading the tunes far and wide.

The latest hits
About a hundred years ago, people used to rush to the sheet music store to buy a written-down copy of the latest hit song. They would play the song at home on a piano or guitar.

Pop facts
  • The song most often sung in English is "Happy Birthday to You." It was written by two Sunday school teachers from Kentucky who called it "Good Morning to All."

Which instrument is played everywhere?

The drum. All over the world, people bang out rhythms on different kinds of drums. They tap, slap, and hit drums to beat out the rhythms of their music. Drums aound different notes depending on how tight or loose the drumskin is.

Play that tune!
Caribbean musicians play tunes on empty steel oil drums. The top is hammered into bumps of different sizes. Each bump sounds different when it is hit, so the drummer can play tunes.

Ta da!
Who's at the door?
   A man with a drum.
Tell him to beat it!

Dazzling drum facts
  • The bigger the drum, the lower the note it sounds. The big bass drum makes a low, deep, "thunking" sound.
  • You can make a drum kit of your own from cookie tins, cartons, and plastic containers. But you may have to go practice in the park!

How do musicians know which notes to play?

Many musicians can read music, and some play by "ear." Musical notes are written down on a special paper printed with sets of five lines. These lines are called a staff. Notes are written as dots on the lines and in the spaces, so musicians know which notes to play or sing.

Take it from the top!
This is what written-down music looks like. Just as the words in a book make sense to people who can read, these lines and dots make sense to people who have learned to read music.

Slow down, speed up
Music is played at different speeds. Sometimes, to keep playing at a steady speed, musicians use a machine like this called a metronome.

Take notes
  • Music can be written down using a special music typewriter or a computer.
  • The longer continuous piano piece ever published is four hours, twelve minutes, and ten seconds long. It's called The Well-Tuned Piano.

How many different kinds of music are there?

There is something for everyone! There are slow, sad songs like the blues; rhythmic songs like reggae and rap; songs that tell stories; and music without words. In China, some music is made with gongs and bells. African songs are full of rhythm. And Spanish music often has the lively sound of castanets.

Computer games
People who make up new tunes are called composers. Modern composers sometimes use computers to create new music.

A special sound
Music from India also has its own special sound. The sitar is a very popular instrument in India.

Tuneful facts
  • Sailors used to sing work songs called sea shanties. The rhythmic songs made everyone pull together.
  • Church hymns were probably the first European songs heard in America.

What was the first musical instrument?

The human voice! Some people, of course, are better singers than others, but everyone can try. The human voice makes sound when breath is pushed past the vocal cords, making them shake. That shaking is called vibrating and, as we all know, sounds are heard when air vibrates!

Play those cords!
Your vocal cords are in a special place in your throat called the larynx. When you are silent, the cords are loose and relaxed like the rubber bands in diagram A. But when you speak, they tighten up like the rubber bands in diagram B.

Can you hear me at the back?
Trained singers can make their voices heard at the back of a concert hall -even over the sound of a full orchestra.

Do re mi facts
  • A scale is a set of eight notes arranged in steps going up and coming down again. Singers practice by singing scales. Each step has been given a name. All together now -Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do.

What is music?

It is an arrangement of sounds  that is pleasing to our ears and to our minds. Music can make us feel happy or sad. This power gives music a special magic and makes it popular all over the world. Ancient peoples thought that  music was a gift from gods.

 Making waves
Sounds are made by air shivering and shaking. Sounds travel through the air in invisible waves. Each sound makes a different shape of wave.

Blow that horn
What tuba can't you play?
   A tuba toothpaste!

La la la and boom chica boom!
Music is made up of three things: melody, which is the tune; harmony, which is notes sounded together, and rhythm, that's the beat!

Why are cactuses prickly?

To frighten off any hungry birds or animals who might like to take a nibble at the flowers. The spikes on a cactus are really its leaves. They usually grow in little groups around the flowers on the cactus. The spikes are long and very sharp.

Watch those spikes!
Cactuses live in very dry places such as deserts. If cactuses had ordinary leaves like other plants do, they would dry up in the hot sun.

Desert flowers
In spring it rains and the cactus flowers get ready to bloom. Their flowers blossom between June and December.

Spiky facts
  • Native Americans in Arizona used to use cactus spikes as pins.
  • The biggest cactus in the world is ten times taller than a person.
  • In Mexico, hollow giant cactuses are used as a place to store grain -prickly spines make them mouse-proof.

Do mushrooms have seeds?

No, they don't. Mushrooms and toadstools have things called spores instead. These tiny spores drop to the ground and grow into copies of their parent mushroom. The wind also carries the tiny spores far and wide, so mushrooms grow wherever they land.

Mushroom alert!
Never pick mushrooms. They could be poisonous.

Important fungi
Mushrooms and toadstools are part of the fungus family. This fungus, called beefsteak fungus, grows on trees. It looks just like a piece of uncooked steak!

A mushy joke
What's the smallest room in the world?
   The mushroom!

Mushroom facts
  • Some members of the fungus family have great names such as, stinkhorns, earthstars, and puffballs.
  • The largest mushroom ever found was in Ohio. It was 77 inches wide and weighed 72 pounds.

Why do apples have seeds inside?

So they can grow more apple trees! The seeds get bigger inside the apple and stay safe until they are fully grown. When the seeds are ready, the apple falls to the ground. Some are eaten by animals and some just rot away. Eventually some seeds find their way into the ground and start to grow a new tree.

Seed food
Coffee and chocolate come from ground-up seeds, and so does pepper. Achoo!

Tree seeds
Nuts have seeds inside their shell. Squirrels collect nuts and put them away to eat later. Sometimes squirrels forget about their nutty hiding places, and so the nuts stay in the ground and grow into trees.

Seeds take a hike
  • Some seeds -such as dandelions -are carried away by the wind.
  • Some seeds have little hooks that stick to animals' fur and get a free ride to another place.

Why are sunflowers called sunflowers?

Because they look like small suns and because they "-follow" the sun. During the day, sunflowers turn their heads from where the sun rises -int the east -to where it sets, in the west.

Hey, speedy!
Sunflowers grow from small seeds to flowers that are taller than most people -about six feet tall -in less than six months.

Useful seeds 
Farmers grow sunflowers, not because they look pretty, but because their seeds are used to make cooking oil. The seeds are also good to eat.

Sunny sunflower facts
  • The largest sunflower ever grown was in Holland. It was almost 26 feet tall.
  • Sunflower petals are used to make yello dye.
  • Just one sunflower head can have more than 1,000 seeds.

Why are flowers brightly colored?

So birds and bees will notice them and sip their nectar. (Nectar is a sweet liquid found inside flowers. Bees make honey out of it.) While creatures are drinking the nectar, pollen from the flower sticks to them. Then they carry the pollen from flower to flower. The pollen then goes inside each flower to make seeds.

Don't bee funny
What did the bee say to the flower?
   "Hello, honey!"

Night flowers
Some plants have flowers that open only at night. These flowers are usually a pale color and have a strong smell. This is so creatures that are awaken at night -like bats and moths - can find them.

Stink bomb
The biggest and smelliest flower in the world is the rafflesia. It's as big as a truck tire. It smells like rotting meat. Flies love it -yum, yum!

Flowery facts
  • The largest rose tree in the world is in Tombstone, Arizona. Its trunk is 40 inches thick, and it is nine feet tall.
  • The American ragweed plant can make eight billion pollen grains in five hours.

Why are Christmas trees called Christmas trees?

Because long ago, in Germany, people decorated fir trees as a way to celebrate the Christmas holiday. But long before people celebrated Christmas, they used to decorate their homes in winter with evergreen trees, wreaths, and garlands to remind them of spring.

Pretty cones
Pine cones grow on pine trees. They hold the tree's seeds. People sometimes use the cones to decorate their Christmas trees.

Lucky kiss!
Mistletoe has been thought of as a "lucky" plant for over 2,000 years. Today we kiss under the mistletoe to bring us good luck.

Christmas pun
What do you call a girl who sings Christmas songs?

Celebration facts
  • Winter is a busy time for holiday. Jewish people celebrate Hanukkah by lighting candles to remember an important time in Jewish history.
  • Hindus also light candles to celebrate the Festival of Diwali, which is a time to think about peace.

Can you tell how old a tree is?

You certainly can. Every year a tree grows a new layer of wood. The new wood makes a ring around the old wood. If you count the rings, you know how many candles to put on a tree's birthday cake.

Counting the rings
You don't have to cut a tree down to tell how old it is. Tree surgeons drill a hole in the tree and pull out a small piece of wood. Then they count the rings.

HA ha ha!
What makes a tree noisy?
   Its bark!

Chief tree
The biggest living thing in the whole world is a sequoia tree in California. It would take 12 grown-ups holding hands to form a circle around it.

Terrific tree facts
  • A large oak tree has about 250,000 leaves on it. Every single one will drop off in the fall.
  • Tree roots grow thicker and longer every year to support the tree as it grows.

Do trees have skin?

Yes, they do, but it's called bark! Like our skin, bark protects the tree from knocks and bangs and keeps moisture in. As the tree grows, new bark grows with it. The new bark pushes the old bark outward. So the oldest bark is always on the outside of the tree.

Floating bark
Bark is light, waterproof, and it floats. Native Americans made their canoes out of strips of birch bark.

Tasty trees
If you tap a hollow tube through the bark of a maple tree, a sweet syrup will drip out called maple syrup. It's delicious on pancakes!

Tree doctors
People called tree surgeons take care of trees. When a tree is injured, they put black sticky stuff, called pitch, on the part that's hurt. This protects the tree until new bark grows.

Woody facts
  • Chomp, chomp! The very first set of false teeth were made out of wood.
  • Rubber comes from a rubber tree.
  • Cork comes from the bark of a cork tree.

Why is grass green?

Because like every green plant it has a special green chemical in it called chlorophyll. This green chemical - along with a little water and some fresh air -helps plants turn the sun's energy into food. Well, the kind of food plants like, anyway!

Time to drop off
In the fall, leaves die. They die because they stop making chlorophyll. And that's why the leaves turn orange and brown and wrinkly.

Munch, crunch!
Not all plants are happy with just air, sunshine and water. This Venus's fly-trap likes to eat insects, too. When an insect settles on its spiny green leaves, the trap shuts and the insect is stuck behind bars!

Great green facts
  • There are 10,000 different kinds of grass in the world.
  • We eat a lot of grass -wheat, barley, corn, rye, and oats. They are used in flour, cereal, and other foods.

Why do we need rain forest?

Rain forests keep our air clean by taking in gases that are harmful to us. They also control the world's weather by releasing moisture into the air which falls as rain. But thousands of acres of rain forests are cut down each year so that people can use the wood and farm the land that is cleared. Many people are worried about what will happen if the rain forests disappear.

Rain forest people
People have been living in rain forests for thousands of years. They have learned to live with the forests and not to destroy them.

Fruits of the forest
We also need rain forests because many medicines are made from plants which can't be found anywhere else. There are a lot more plants there waiting to be discovered.

Remarkable rain forest facts
  • Rain forests help to stop flooding by soaking up water and holding it in the ground.
  • Rain forests are home to thousands of people, animals, and plants that can't live anywhere else.

Why do plants grow up, not down?

Plants need light to make food. That's why plants grow from inside the dark earth up toward the light. When they reach light, a plant's leaves open. Then the plant uses the light to make all the good things it needs to grow.

Growing up
Maybe you've got a green thumb. Collect some seeds or beans. Put some soil in a pot and plant the seeds or beans. If they have enough light, air, and water, they should grow.

Growing down
There is one part of a plant that doesn't grow up, and that is the roots. They grow down. Their job is to hold the plant in the ground and to pull water, and food, up through the soil.

Starting seedy facts
  • The biggest seed in the world comes from a palm tree called the coco de mer. The seed can be more than 18 inches long and weigh as much as a three-year-old kid.

Why are plants important?

Because without them we wouldn't be able to live on this planet. Plants take in gases which are harmful to us and give off oxygen which we need to live. And, as if that weren't enough, they provide us with food. They deserve a big  thank you. 

"Do re me!
Some scientists believe that plants like music. They think that plants grow stronger if music is played to them. But it seems they like classical music better than rock 'n' roll.

City plants
Cities need trees and green parks. All the different plants make the air better to breathe and they look nice, too!

Plant these facts in your brain
  • The nature plant stings to stop animals from eating it.
  • The giant Amazon water lily has leaves the size of a rowboat. It grows to this size in just one year.

Mind teaser1

Fill in the blanks. Complete each sentence.

  • wood
  • cream
  • ocean
  • clay
  • cocoa beans
  1. Pencils are made from ________________________ .
  2. You need some ______________ to make ice cream.
  3. One place that salt comes from is the _____________ .
  4. Cups and saucers are made out of ______________ .
  5. Chocolate starts out as _____________ .

 ***Rate yourself with the following correct answers below.***

1.wood; 2.cream; 3.ocean; 4.clay; 5.cocoa beans

What are cups and saucers made of?

A special, stiff mud called clay which can be shaped into different things such as cups and saucers, plates and bowls. After the pieces have been shaped, they are baked until they are hard and dry in a special oven, called a kiln. Most cups and saucers are made in large factories, but some are still made by hand.

Factory pots
In factories where they make plates. cups, and saucers, the clay is shaped in molds. That way they can make lots of items that look the same.

Spin off!
Some things such as bowls and vases are made by hand on a machine called a potter's wheel. The wheel spins around while the person shapes the clay.

Clay facts
  • Pots are among the very first things that people learned how to make. In museums you can see pieces of bowls and cooking pots that are more than 5,000 years old.
  • Bricks are also made of clay and cooked in a kiln.

How does soap clean things?

Soap is made up of millions of tiny parts called molecules. Each molecule has a head and a tail. The head likes water and the tail likes dirt. The soap molecules surround the pieces of dirt with their tails sticking into the dirt, and their heads into the  water. This loosens the dirt, and it floats off into the water, leaving your clothes nice and clean!

What is soap made of?
It's made of fats, or oils, and chemicals. Soap also has perfume in it to make it smell nice, and dyes to make it look pretty.

Clean facts
  • Soap doesn't always come in bars. It also comes in flakes, grains, and liquids.
  • Long ago, before soap factories, people made their own soap by boiling fats with wood ash. The saop cleaned well but it was gray, gritty, and it smelled pretty bad.

How is chocolate made?

It is made from the beans of the cocoa tree, which grows in the hot, steamy rain forests of South America and Africa. The beans are picked and sent to factories. There they are toasted in large ovens to bring out their flavor. Then the beans are squashed and turned into a thick liquid, called cocoa mass. Sugar and milk are sometimes added to make the chocolate sweeter.

Delicious fun!
What's huge, brown, and tastes delicious?
  A chocolate dinosaur.

Inside the chocolate factory
The chocolate mix is sent to candy factories where it is turned into all kinds of tasty delights. Machines shape the candy, and people check that the machines do the job properly. They even get to taste the candy as well!

Chocolate facts
  • The first people to enjoy chocolate were the Aztec people of Mexico. They mixed the ground-up beans to make a thick, bitter, frothy drink called chocolate.
  • After the Spanish arrived in Mexico, they took the idea of chocolate drinks back to Europe. They added sugar and vanilla to make them sweeter.

Where do clothes come from?

Factories! The cloth to make our clothes is made from thread. (Threads are thin pieces of twisted fibers.) The threads are woven together to make sheets of cloth. The cloth is then dyed and sometimes printed with patterns. At another factory, the cloth is cut and sewn to make clothes. Then the clothes go to stores, so we can walk in and buy them!

Natural fibers
Until a hundred years ago, most fibers came from plants or animals. This is a silkworm -it makes silk. Fibers from plants or animals are called natural fibers.

Funny, ha, ha!
When is a chair like a piece of material?
       When it is satin!

Modern fibers
In the past 100 years people have discovered how to make new kinds of fibers, like polyester. These are called man made fibers. It's hard to imagine, but your bathing suit is probably made from oil, coal, or wood!

All dressed up
  • Clothes have been worn for thousands of years. People first wore clothes to protect themselves against the weather, or to decorate themselves.
  • Some of the earliest cloth was made out of tree bark.

How is ice cream made?

Cream, eggs, sugar, and flavorings are mixed together and then frozen. While the mixture is freezing, it is stirred to keep it smooth and creamy, and to stop chunks of ice from forming!

Teddy bear sundae
Would you like to make a tasty dessert? Put three scoops of ice cream in a line. Use fruit for the eyes and nose, cholocate for the mouth, and a banana for the arms and legs.

What a chore!
This is an old-fashioned ice cream maker. Inside is a bowl which sits on crushed ice. A paddle fits into the bowl, and when someone turns the handle, the paddle stirs the ingredients.

Scrumptious ice cream facts
  • Ice cream as we know it today was first made on the island of Sicily, just off the coast of southern Italy.
  • The world's first ice cream factory was built in America in 1865.

How are pencils made?

Just like a sandwich. You start with two large slices of wood. Each slice has grooves cut into it. Next comes the filling. The filling is made from a soft rock called graphite. It is cut into long, thin sticks and placed in each groove, on the bottom slice of wood. The top slice is spread with glue and put on top. The "pencil sandwich" then goes into a machine that cuts, shapes and paints each pencil.

Before pencils
Children didn't always have pencils and paper to write with. They once wrote on slateboards, or blackboards, with chalk instead.

Feathered pens
Years ago, bird's feathers were used as ink pens. They are called quills. The sharp tip of the feather was dipped in ink.

Write this down
  • The first people to use pencils were the ancient Greeks. Their pencils were flat cakes of real lead, which is a metal.
  • More than 10 billion pencils are made each year in the world.

How is glass made?

Glass is made from sand, a chemical called sodium, and limestone. They are all heated together in a very hot fire until they turn into liquid. The liquid is then cooled a little, and air is blown through it to shape it into things like bottles, jars, and glasses. Machines in factories shape the glass but sometimes people do it by hand.

Special glass
Some people are especially trained to make wonderful glass shapes. They are called glass blowers.

See-through facts
  • Different chemicals are added to the hot liquid to color the glass.
  • The first glass things known, were beads made from rough lumps of glass. That was 4,000 years ago in Asia.

How are the paints in my paint box made?

The paints in a paint box are usually watercolors. They are made out of different things such as ground-up colored earth, rocks, and dyes -and then mixed with a gum to hold it all together.

Colorful oils
Oil paints are usually made from the same things as water paints, but oil is used instead  of water to hold the paint on the paper or canvas. Oil paints dry much more slowly than water paints.

Picture perfect
  • Portraits are pictures of people.
  • Landscapes are pictures of places.
  • Still life's are close-up pictures of everyday objects, like fruit.

How is paper made?

Most paper is made from trees. Logs are chopped into wood chips. The chips are then mixed with chemicals and water and turned into a mush called wood pulp. The soggy pulp is put into a machine which spreads the mixture onto a moving belt. Huge rollers squeeze water from the pulp and flatten it, and hot rollers dry it. And then, out of the end of the machine comes a new roll of paper.

Recycled paper
Old, used paper can be made into new paper, called recycled paper. Recycled paper is a good idea because it helps save trees.

Making money
The paper for making dollar bills isn't made out of wood fibers, but out of cotton rags. That's because the fibers in cotton are stronger than the fibers in wood.

Here's your change
"Doctor, I keep thinking I'm a dollar bill!"
"Go shopping, the change will do you good!"

Paper facts
  • Some forests are grown especially to be made into paper.
  • The first people to make paper from pulp were the Chinese. They made paper from bamboo.
  • The queen wasp chews wood to make pulp, and then makes a papery nest with it.

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